Commonly used astrological theories like planets in zodiac signs, houses, and in aspect have, in general, failed to be supported by research Dean et al, , Cornelius, In other words, a fundamental concept of harmonics as applied to astrology is that angular distances that are a fraction of a circle with the same denominator have a similar effect. Addey , Addey conducted research based on his theory and the research indicates positive results but his work was criticized by others Dean, Cochrane associates harmonics that are multiples of seven with self-control and personality characteristics that might be regarded as introverted Cochrane, and he suggests that when Mercury, the planet of communication and the conscious mind, combines with Saturn, the planet that confers focus, in seven-based harmonics, the mental discipline and capacity for scientific work is increased Cochrane, Harmonics that are based on doubling are especially closely related according to the harmonic theory of Addey , such as 7, 14, 28, Cochrane, Given these suggestions that the planet Saturn in seven-based harmonics inclines towards discipline, self-control, and a more inner-directed attention, one can expect that individuals with these kinds of astrological indicators at the time of birth would be more introverted than an average person.
The Sun is regarded as being very important in astrology so therefore one might expect according to these astrological theories that that Sun and Saturn in seven-based harmonics at the time of birth correlates with greater introversion. Because there is no solid body of evidence to support any astrological concepts and a firm theoretical foundation for astrology has not been established, graphs of relevant information were analyzed to explore the data rather than conduct a quantitative hypothesis test. A useful tool for analyzing harmonics is the harmonic chart, and harmonic charts are used for the exploratory research we conducted.
A harmonic chart is constructed by multiplying planetary positions by the harmonic number and performing a modulus function so that all positions are between 0 and If the resulting harmonic positions of two planets are within a specified orb, then the two planets are aspected to each other in that harmonic. Doubling a harmonic results in angular distances that are half as large and just as sound waves with half the wave length are an octave higher and have a similar musical quality, the harmonics 7, 14, 28, and 56, for example, are hypothesized to be similar in their astrological significance.
Another issue in astrological research is the system of measurement used to determine the positions of planets and angular distances between them. In astrology measurement in zodiac longitude is most often used, and astronomers more often measure planetary positions in right ascension. We conducted the research using both measurement systems. Exploratory Research.
The data was used in an earlier study and more details of the data are described in that study Cochrane and Fink, The EPI contains an E-scale score which measures the extraversion-introversion personality trait. There is also an L-scale score which detects feigned or deceptive responses, and after removing subjects who scored 6 out of 9 or higher on the L-scale score, a total of subjects remained and used in this study. Harmonic charts were calculated for the subjects and mean E-scale scores were plotted on the Y axis against the orb of Sun and Saturn in the harmonic.
The orb of a harmonic varies from 0 to and a value of less than about 16 or 20 indicates that the two planets according to harmonic astrologers are close enough to be regarded as connected to each other in that harmonic. Graphs were produced in both right ascension and in longitude but only results in right ascension are shown because they more consistently support the hypothesis, as described below, than measurement in zodiac longitude. Figure 1 shows mean E-scale scores in relationship to Sun and Saturn in harmonics 7, 14, 28, and 56 measured in right ascension.
The mean E-scale scores are calculated for 60 groups of charts, as follows: the mean E-scale score for all data with on orb of 0 to 3 degrees is plotted, followed by data with an orb of 3 to 6 degrees, and so on up the data with an orb of to degrees. We shall refer to these 60 groups as 60 sectors. The X axis is the orb in the harmonic, ranging from 0 to in 60 groups of 3 degrees. The circled score is the mean e-scale score with an orb of 15 to 18 degrees.
With subjects divided into 60 sectors, there is an average of fewer than 16 subjects per sector. This relatively small sample size would be expected to have high variability in scores. However, of the first six scores in each of the four graphs in Figure 1, only one of these 24 scores is above the mean score!
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The sixth of the 60 scores in each of the four graphs in Figure 9 is circled. The only score above the mean up to and including the circled score is in the 7 th harmonic graph in Figure 1. The first six scores in each graph represent planets that are aspected to each other in that harmonic within an orb of 18 degrees because in the sector graph there are three degrees per score. In a harmonic chart orbs are automatically adjusted to the harmonic so consequently all harmonics are assigned the same orb.
An orb of about 16 degrees Is often used by astrologers who employ harmonic methods as a limit for aspects regarded as being important Cochrane, The three graphs in Figure 1 exhibit extraordinary consistency! All four graphs indicate that Sun-Saturn in the harmonic inclines towards introversion. Notice also that the lowest point in all four graphs is at the beginning of the graph, which represents an orb of zero and the introversion score goes up fairly gradually, just as we would expect according to astrological theory.truceclohal.tk
Astrology Books by John Addey
Also, two planets occupying the same position are in a relationship in many harmonics. For example, two planets separated by one degree in the sky are separated by 7 degrees in the 7 th harmonic and 14 degrees in the 14 th harmonic. However, the mean score for Sun and Saturn in the first harmonic up to a three degree orb was slightly above the mean e-scale score. The first harmonic mean for the first sector of the sector division is Therefore, the association of low e-scale scores with the 7 th , 14 th , 28 th , and 56 th harmonic aspects of Sun and Saturn is not an artifact of a first harmonic relationship.
Interestingly, the graph was in greater agreement with theory when planets were measured in right ascension very often used by astronomers rather than in zodiac longitude very often used by astrologers. Measured in zodiac longitude, of the first five points in the sector division, four 7 th harmonic, five 14 th harmonic, three 28 th harmonic, and three 56 th harmonic aspects were below the median e-scale score of These results suggest that the 7 th , 14 th , 28 th , and 56 th harmonic aspects of Sun and Saturn in zodiac longitude incline towards low e-scale scores but not as decisively as when measurement is in right ascension.
Given the vast number of variables available to select from and the fact that astrological theory has yet to be clearly supported in earlier research, the results of exploratory research in astrology must be regarded with great skepticism. Astrological theory that has not been thoroughly studied in a quantitative manner is worthy of further study. Exploratory research using graphs and other visual tools may suggest astrological factors that can become the basis for future hypothesis tests. For example, in this study an association of seven-based harmonics between Sun and Saturn with increased introversion can be tested in future studies.
The results of this study also suggest that research in right ascension, often ignored in astrological studies, is worthwhile. The research study conducted in this case was guided by astrological theory, and the theory provided the means to identify a specific set of variables to explore. The decision to explore the possibility of an association of 7 th harmonic and octaves of the 7 th harmonic aspects between Sun and Saturn produced positive results without the endless searches for significant astrological variables that are likely to result from pure exploratory research that is not founded on existing theory.
Importance of Astrological Research. Given the failure of any astrological theory to be unambiguously supported, a concern can be raised that exploratory research in astrology may needlessly prolong the seemingly endless debate regarding the validity of astrological research as a whole. Non-believers in astrology may be concerned that the research presented in this paper will foster the pointless pursuit of astrological research.
One may be tempted to draw the conclusion that the complexity of variables that can be studied is so enormous that a great amount of time and effort can be expended on an obviously hopeless goal of validating ideas that are devoid of any solid theoretical premise and are based on ancient superstitions.
There are benefits to astrological research that may not at first be apparent. Non-believers of astrology may hope that increased education and development of critical thinking skills by the public will eventually make the practice of astrology extinct. However, surveys indicate that from to belief in astrology in the United States has remained fairly stable, and although belief in astrology decreases with increased education, it does not become extinct.
Lyons , ; Newport and Strausberg , ; Hall, Also, a few prominent and distinguished scientists who support astrology continue to fan the flames of astrological interest. For example, astrophysicist and leading expert in the study of black holes and other astronomical phenomena, Dr.
Harmonics in Astrology
Rudy Schild , is an outspoken proponent of astrology, psychic ability, and visitations by extraterrestrials to planet earth Schild , Although such beliefs may cause many scientists to roll their eyes and wish to dismiss Dr. Schild as well outside the mainstream, his technical expertise and important scientific contributions make dismissal of Dr.
Of course, Dr. Among distinguished psychologists who have seriously entertained the possibility that astrology can provide valuable measurable diagnostic or assessment information regarding human personality are Jung Jung, , Ertel Ertel and Irving, , and Eysenck Esyenck and Nias In scientists denounced astrology Bok , Jerome, and Kurtz, , and although this statement received considerable publicity, astrological services continue to thrive.
Since public interest in astrology does not seem to be diminishing, sincere attempts to investigate astrological assertions are vitally important in determining what demonstrable validity, if any, there is to any astrological theories. If astrological variables are not found to have any significant measurable association with human behavior or human personality, we might expect greater conservatism and caution about the promulgation of astrological activities and ideas.
Even astrologers appear to have less faith that their craft is capable of providing objective information than they believed in the early 20 th century Cornelius, , Brady, and the decrease in this confidence in the capabilities of astrology to provide objective information is clearly a direct result of the failure of research studies to support astrological theories. Ironically, a greater impediment to the growth of astrology than denouncements by non-believers may be the response of astrologers to astrological research. Therefore, astrological research may provide social benefits whether positive or negative results are found.
From the point of view of non-believers in astrology, exacerbating the impact of distinguished scientists and psychologists supporting astrology are seeming compatibilities of modern scientific theories with astrological theories. He edited the organisation's magazine, The Astrological Journal from to , and was the prime mover in establishing the Association's annual conferences. One further contribution to organised astrology should also be mentioned — he founded the Urania Trust as a registered education charity in Addey's most important contribution to modern astrology was the Harmonic theory, which sought to put the understanding of astrological effects on a clear and rational footing.
James Holden, in his History of Horoscopic Astrology , writes that Addey's theory of Harmonics "excited some enthusiasm when it was first announced, but it has not found favor with most astrologers", adding however that most horoscope programs can calculate harmonics if desired. Astrology Critics , reviewing Addey's Harmonics in Astrology , writes that the book starts from the fact that even basic issues such as "which is the best system Eastern or Western in astrology, what is the correct house system, where is the cusp of a house, the delineations in 'good' and 'bad' aspects or 'good" and 'bad' signs.
The theory of harmonics in astrology needs more research and development in order to see how can be better applied in practice. Unfortunately it didn't made much progress since ". Addey's view was that constructs such as the twelvefold zodiac and house-systems were unable to evaluate many of the effects of cosmic periods.
Twelvefold systems allow patterns of 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 to be easily analyzed, but not cycles of 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, ll or greater than 12; the tools of astrology would have to be improved.
This is an important question, for before any science can be truly unfolded, so as to realize its full potentialities, it must first be reduced to its fundamental concepts. These fundamental concepts, he thought, were at their simplest the qualities of number manifesting in time; the search for some way of understanding these lead to the formulation of his theory of harmonics.
His harmonic techniques presented a far more subtle and refined way of studying the complex pattern of the numerous cycles that make up the world in which we live, it broke out of the limitations of the twelvefold system of astrology. The practical development of harmonics was facilitated by Addey's use of computers. Nevertheless, the initial vision of a basis for a rational astrology arose from a vantage point of Platonic and Pythagorean contemplation.
He was influenced by Plato's myth of Er described in The Republic, in which Plato suggests that the soul continually incarnates having made a positive choice to take on the opportunities and challenges of a particular terrestrial life, lived at a particular time, in a particular place. Addey's astrological research methods have been cited in mainstream publications.
One source cites Addey's work on astrological time twins people who are born at the same moment and should therefore have similar traits as "perhaps the most extensive survey of time twins made by an astrologer. Another source, a standard college textbook on the philosophy of science, provides a chapter with descriptions and graphic illustrations from one of Addey's studies as an example of astrological research; the study extended the statistical research of Michel Gauquelin by applying harmonic analysis to the data.
The spectrum repeats itself every quadrant. Addey wrote numerous articles — mainly for the Astrological Journal , many of which are now available in his Harmonic Anthology , new edition, AFA, and Selected Writings AFA, ; his main work was Harmonics in Astrology , latest edition, Eyebright Books, , he was some way through a further book, A New Study of Astrology when he was taken ill in the winter of — this was completed by Charles Harvey and Tim Addey some years later Urania Trust, The latter work included as appendices two small monographs — Astrology Reborn originally published in and The Discrimination of Birthtypes The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V ; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day.